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直流调速器|大功率电动汽车充电机的设计
发布时间 : 2018-06-05 21:06 浏览量 : 55

CHUNDIANDONGQICHEYILIDIANCHIWEIDONGLIYUAN,CHONGMANDIANHOU,YIDIANLIZUOGONGTUIDONGQICHE。BUTONGYUQIYOUFADONGJIQICHEXUYAOTIANJIAQIYOU,CHUNDIANDONGQICHEZAIDIANLIHAOGUANGHOUTONGGUOWAIZHIDIANYUANDUIQIJINXINGCHONGDIAN,TONGCHANGDANCIXINGSHILICHENGZAI100~200GONGLI。YUCHUANTONGQICHEXIANGBI,CHUNDIANDONGCHEZAISHIYONGCHENGBENSHANGYOUZHEWUYIBINIDEYOUSHI,BAIGONGLIYUEXIAOHAO15DUDIAN,CHENGBEN8YUAN,JINXIANGDANGYUQIYOUFADONGJIQICHECHENGBEN1/10。MUQIAN,GUOJIAYIZHESHOUJINXINGDIANDONGQICHEHEXINNENGYUANQICHEDESHIFANTUIGUANG,DIANDONGQICHECHONGDIANZHANZESHIZHUYAOHUANJIEZHIYI,BIXUYUDIANDONGQICHEQITALINGYUSHIXIANGONGTONGXIEDIAOFAZHAN。

充电模式
电动汽车能源供给系统主要由供电系统、充电系统和动力蓄电池构成。另外,还包括充电监控、电池管理和烟雾报警监控等。充电机是充电系统的重要组成部分。充电站给汽车充电一般分为三种方式:普通充电、快速充电、电池更换。普通充电多为交流充电,对于容量不超过5kW的交流充电机,输入为额定电压220V、50Hz的单相交流电,对于容量大于5kW的交流充电机,输入为额定线电压380V、50Hz的三相交流电。将交流插头直接插在电动汽车充电接口,充电时间大约需要4~8小时。快速充电多为直流充电,直流充电机输入为额定线电压380V、50Hz的三相交流电,输出电压一般不超过700V,输出电流一般不超过700A。交流输入隔离型AC/DC充电机的输出电压为额定电压的50%~100%,并且输出电流为额定电流时,功率因数应大于0.85,效率应不小于90%。

CHONGDIANJIYINGNENGGOUBAOZHENGZAICHONGDIANGUOCHENGZHONGDONGLIXUDIANCHIDANTIDIANYA、WENDUHEDIANLIUBUCHAOGUOYUNXUZHI。CHONGDIANJIYINGJUBEIFANGSHUCHUDUANLUHEFANGFANJIEGONGNENG。CHONGDIANJIZHISHAONENGWEIYIXIASANZHONGLEIXINGDONGLIXUDIANCHIZHONGDEYIZHONGCHONGDIAN:LILIZIXUDIANCHI、QIANSUANXUDIANCHI、NIEQINGXUDIANCHI。

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系统结构
大功率电动汽车充电机的输入为额定线电压380V、50Hz的三相交流电,输出额定电压700V,额定电流600A。系统采用19"标准机架,结构紧凑、布局合理、外型美观大方。外型尺寸:高×宽×深为2200mm×600mm×600mm。采用60个模块并联,每个模块10A/700V,模块尺寸:高×宽×深为133mm×425mm×270mm,15层4列,分四个柜体安放,四个柜体可分开运输,使用时紧凑左右排列。机架前门、后门均为双开门,方便检修。电源进线和汇流排输出位置均在底部输入。电源输入断路器及监控单元触摸屏安装在主机中间控制柜前部。充电机控制结构示意图如图2所示。

 

TU2 CHONGDIANJIKONGZHIJIEGOUSHIYITU

开关电源主回路设计
电动汽车充电机采用的大功率高频开关电源的原理框图如图3所示,由三相桥式不可控整流电路对三相交流输入进行滤波整流,功率因数校正预稳压800V后经高频DC/DC半桥功率变换器,滤波输出直流700V为动力蓄电池充电。经过分析计算,变压器采用双E65磁芯,初级线圈12匝,则根据输出电压最高700V、输入电压最低780V、最大占空比0.95可求得次级绕组圈数N2,N2=(12/780)×(700/0.95)=11.33,考虑漏感、次级整流压降等因素取N2为12匝。

TU3 CHONGDIANJIDIANYUANDEYUANLIKUANGTU


由于电动汽车充电机为非线性负荷,会产生谐波,对电网是一种污染。必须采取有效措施,如功率因数校正或无功补偿等技术,限制电动汽车充电机进入电网的总谐波量。为提高功率因数,降低输入电网谐波,采用有源功率因数校正电路,如图4所示。它采用三相三开关三电平BOOST电路,工作在连续模式,开关采用两个MOSFET组合成的双向开关。图中,开关S1,S2,S3是双向开关。由于电路的对称性,电容中点电位VM与电网中点的电位近似相同,因而通过双向开关S1、S2、S3可分别控制对应相上的电流。开关合上时对应相上的电流幅值增大,开关断开时对应桥臂上的二极管导通(电流为正时,上臂二极管导通;电流为负时,下臂二极管导通)。在输出电压的作用下Boost电感上的电流减小,从而实现对电流的控制。其控制电路采用三个控制芯片UC3854A,相电压通过三相隔离变压器向UC3854A提供同步信号和预校正信号,电流反馈采用霍尔电流互感器,分别控制三个开关,形成三个电流反馈内环和一个电压反馈外环的多闭环系统。该电路的优点在于结构简单,每相仅需一个功率开关。具有三电平特性谐波电流小,开关管电压电流应力小。不需要中线,无三次谐波,满载时功率因数很高。开关应力小,关断压降低,开关损耗低,共模EMI低。

TU4 SANXIANGSANKAIGUANSANDIANPINGAPFCDIANLUTUOPUTU


DC/DC功率变换器采用半桥电路拓扑,功率器件少,控制简单,可靠性高。如图5所示,采用MOSFET和IGBT并联技术,充分利用了MOSFET开关速度快和IGBT导通压降低的优点。在电路上采取措施,使得MOSFET的关断时间比IGBT延迟一定的时间,大大减小了IGBT的电流拖尾,降低了开关通态损耗,提高了效率和可靠性,使得半桥电路的输出功率可以实现7kW。其输出侧采用的整流方式有半波整流,中心抽头全波整流及全桥整流。由于输出电压较高,全桥整流对变压器利用率高,比较适合用于这种场合。

TU5 MOSFET/IGBTBINGLIANZUHEKAIGUANDIANLU

TU6 PWMQIANGPOJUNLIUFAGONGZUOKUANGTU

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