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当前位置: 12V调速器 > 常见问题 > 直流调速器|开关电源设计及制作
直流调速器|开关电源设计及制作
发布时间 : 2018-06-15 15:41 浏览量 : 65

KAIGUANDIANYUANCONGSHANGSHIJI50NIANDAIWENSHIZHIJINYITIJIXIAO、XIAOLVGAOERGUANGFANYINGYONGYUJISUANJI、TONGXINZHUANGBEIDENGJIHUSUOYOUDEDIANZISHEBEI。QIZHONGLEIFANDUO、XINGSHIDUOYANG,FAZHANQUSHIYECHAOZHEXIAOTIJI、GAOXIAOLV、DICHENGBENDEFANGXIANGFAZHAN。ZHEILIJIESHAODE3 00 WKAIGUANDIANYUANSHUYUGELIXINGYINGKAIGUAN、BANQIAOSHIKAIGUANDIANYUAN,ZAIJIAODIDIANYA(1 4V)HEJIAODADIANLIU(2 2A)SHUCHUDETIAOJIANXIAYOUHENHAODEXIAOLVJISHUCHUZHIBIAO,DUIHEXINQIJIAN(LIRUGAOPINBIANYAQI)JINXINGLEHELIDECANSHUJIRAOZHIGONGYISHEJI。

GAOPINBIANYAQISHIKAIGUANDIANYUANZHONGHEXINNENGLIANGZHUANHUANBUJIAN,TAHEPUTONGGONGPINBIANYAQIYIYANGYESHITONGGUOCIOUHELAICHUANSHUNENGLIANGDE。BUGUOZAIZHEIZHONGGONGLVBIANYAQIZHONGSHIXIANCIOUHEDECILUBUSHIPUTONGBIANYAQIZHONGDEGUIGANGPIAN,ERSHIZAIGAOPINQINGKUANGXIAGONGZUODECIDAOLVJIAOGAODETIEYANGTICIXINHUOPIMOHEJINDENGCIXINGCAILIAO,QIMUDESHIWEILEHUODEJIAODADELICIDIANGAN、JIANXIAOCILUZHONGDEGONGLVSUNHAO,SHIZHINENGYIZUIXIAODESUNHAOHEXIANGWEISHIZHENCHUANSHUJUYOUKUANPINDAIDEMAICHONGNENGLIANG[1]。

TIEYANGTICIXINYOUEC、EE、EDT、EP、 EPC、 EF、 EI、 PQ、 RM、 P、LPDENGDUOZHONGXINGHAO,YINGYONGYUGEZHONGBUTONGDEYAOQIU,QIZHONGPQXINGCIXINJUYOUCIPINGBIHAODEYOUDIAN,JIANXIAOLEDIANCIGANRAO(EMI)DECHUANBO,TEBIESHIYONGYUKAIGUANDIANYUANBIANYAQI,ZAI50W~1 000WFANWEINEIDEXIAOGUOJIAOHAO。

2.用PQ35/35制作300W半桥式变换器高频开关电源

2.1 300W(14V、22A)BANQIAOSHIKAIGUANDIANYUANYUANLITU

3 00 W(1 4 V、 2 2 A)BANQIAOSHIKAIGUANDIANYUANYUANLITURUTU1SUOSHI。YOUYUANLITUKEKANCHU,3 00 WBANQIAOSHIKAIGUANDIANYUANZHUYAOYOULIANGZHIGONGLVGUANIRFP460LC、GAOPINBIANYAQIPQ35/35(PC40CAIZHI)、SHUCHUZHENGLIULVBODIANLU、QUDONGDIANLU、BAOHUDIANLU、KONGZHIDIANLU(PIANFUSUOXIANBENTUWEIJICHU)YIJIFUZHUDIANYUANDENGZUCHENG。

关于半桥式开关电源原理许多书籍已详细说明,本文不再嗷述,下面详细说明高频变压器的参数设计和绕制工艺。
 

 

2.2 300WBANQIAOSHIKAIGUANDIANYUANGAOPINBIANYAQIDECANSHUSHEJIYURAOZHI

BANQIAOSHIGAOPINBIANYAQIDECIHUATEXINGGONGZUOZAIDIYI、SANXIANGXIAN,CITONGBIANHUACONGYIBmDAO+Bm,SHUYUDUICHENGSHIGONGZUOBIANYAQI,WUXUJIAQIXI。

(1)GUSUANPQ35CIXINDEGONGLVRONGLIANG

开关电源变压器功率容量计算式为[2]:

 

SHIZHONG

PT--BIANYAQIDESHIZAIGONGLV,DUIYUBANQIAOSHIPT=(1/ η+1.4 1 4)P。,QIZHONGQUXIAOLVη=8 5%,Po=300W, ZEPT=777w;

Ko--CHUANGKOUDETONGTIANCHONGXISHU,QU0.5:

Kf--BOXINGXISHU,FANGBOSHIQU4;

Fw--KAIGUANPINLV,BENLIWEI1 00KHz:

Bw--CIXINGONGZUOCITONGMIDU,YIBANQU1/3BAOHECITONGMIDU,BENLICAIYONGP C 4 0CAIZHI,BAOHECIMIG s=0.39T(1 00℃), QUBw=0.1 3T:

Kj--DIANLIUMIDUBILIXISHU,YIBANQU400:

X--CHANGSHU,YOUSUOXUANCIXINQUEDING,KEQUYI0.1 2。

ZEA P=(7 7 7*1 04/0.5*4*1 00*1 03*0.1 3*4 00)1.14≈0.72cm4。

YEKEYIYOUXIASHIJISUAN[3]:

 

SHIZHONG

Pt--BIANYAQIDEBIAOCHENGSHUCHUGONGLV,KEQU1.5PoWEI450W;

η--BIANYAQIDEXIAOLV,ZHEILIQU85%:

f--KAIGUANPINLV,BENLIWEI1 00KH z:

Bm--CIXINDEZUIDACIGANYINGQIANGDU,QU1 500GS:

δ--QIBAOXIANDEDIANLIUMIDU,1 00KHzPINLVKEQU6A/mm2:

Km--CHUANGKOUDETONGTIANCHONGXISHU,QU0.5:

Kc--CIXINTIANCHONGXISHU,KEQU1.0。

ZEA P=4 5 0*1 06/(2*0.8 5*1 00*1 03*1 5 00*4*0.5*1)≈0.59cm4。

ERCHABIAOP Q 3 5/3 5DEA P=4.3 c m4,YUANYUANMANZUGONGLVRONGLIANGYAOQIU,ZHISUOYIXUANPQ35YESHIWEIYIHOUJIADASHUCHUGONGLVZUOZHUNBEI。

(2)JISUANYUANBIANRAOZUZASHU

原边绕组匝数可由下面公式计算:

 

SHIZHONG

Kf--BOXINGXISHU,FANGBOSHIQU

Pt--BIANYAQIDEBIAOCHENGSHUCHUGONG 4;LV,KEQU1.5PoWEI4sow;

Fw--KAIGUANPINLV,BENLIWEIη1--BIANYAQIDEXIAOLV,ZHEILI 1ooKH z:

Bw--CIXINGONGZUOCITONGMIDU,QU0.1 3T;

Ae-- CIXINYOUXIAOMIANJI,PQ35/35WEI196mm2;

V--BIANYAQIYUANBIANDIANYA,BENLIZHONGV=250*1.3/2=1 62.5V。

ZENp=1 6 2.5/4*1 00*1 08*0.1 3*1 9 6*1 0-6≈ 1 5.9,QUZHENG1 6ZA。HOULAIJINGGUOSHIYAN,QU20ZABIJIAOHESHI。

(3)JISUANYUAN、FUBIANRAOZUZASHUBIJIFUBIANRAOZU

可按下式计算半桥式高频变压器的原、副边匝数比:

 

SHIZHONG

Np--YUANBIANRAOZUZASHU

Ns--FUBIANRAOZUZASHU

Vi n mi n--ZUIXIAOSHURUZHILIUDIANYA,ZAIJIAOLIU1 9 0 VJIAZAIXIAYUEWEI1 90*1.3=247V。

V o p--BIANYAQIYINGSHUCHUDIANYA,WEIDIANYUANSHUCHUDIANYAVo、ZHENGLIUERJIGUANZHENGXIANGYAJIANGVdfHELVBODIANGANZHILIUYAJIANGV LSANXIANGZHIHECHUYIZHANKONGBID,JIVop=(Vo+VdfSHIVL)/D。ZAIBENLIZHONGVo=14V、V df=0.7V、VL。=0.2V、D=0.8,ZE Vop=(1 4+0.7+0.2)/0.8=18.625V

ZENp/Ns=1/2*247/18.625≈6.6。

FUBIANRAOZUNs=NP/6.6=20/6.6≈ 3ZA,ZAISHIYANZHONG2 0:3DEZABIQUDELEHENHAODEXIAOGUO。

(4)XIANJINGHEGENSHUDEXUANQU

YUANBIANRAOZUDIANLIUWEII p=2 P o/Vsη;

Po=Vop*22=14.9*22=327W;

Vsη=Vin min*η=247*98%=242.0 6,QIZHONGηWEIBIANYAQIDEXIAOLV;

ZE I p=2*3 2 7/2 4 2.0.6≈2.7A。

KAOLVQUFUXIAOYING,ZAIl00KHzl00℃XIACHUANTOUSHENDUWEI△=7.6 5/F1/2≈0.242mm[4],2△=0.484mm, YINGXUANZEZHIJINGBUCHAOGUO0.484mmDEQIBAOXIAN。KAOLVYOUQIDEHOUDU,SHIJIZHONGXUANQULE0.49mmDEGAOQIANGDUQIBAOXIAN。

QUDIANLIUMIDUJ=6A/mm2,ZEDANGENo.49mmXIANJINGQIBAOXIANKETONGGUODIANLIUWEI:

I=JπD2/4=6*3.1 4*0.49*0.49/4≈1.1 3A

ZECHUJIKEYONG3GENBINGLIAN。CIJIWEII p*Np/N s/I≈1 6GEN。YINWEICIJIDEDIANLIUBIJIAODA(2 2A),YEKEYONGTONGBORAOZHI。

(5)GAOPINBIANYAQIDERAOZHI

GAOPINBIANYAQIDERAOZHIZAIZHIZUOKAIGUANDIANYUANGUOCHENGZHONGSHIHENFUZADE,DANGGONGLVGUANYOUDAOTONGZHUANWEIGUANDUANSHI,YOULOUGANCUNCHUDENENGLIANGSHIFANGHUICHANSHENGHENDADEDIANYAJIANFENG,RONGYIZAOCHENGQIJIANDESUNHUAI、BINGQIEEHUAXIAOLV,SUOYIYAOJINLIANGSHIBIANYAQIDELOUGANJIANGDAOZUIXIAO。ZHEILICAIYONGDESHI“SANMINGZHI”RAOFA,JIXIANRAOCHUJIDEYIBAN,ZAIRAOCIJI,RANHOURAOCHUJIDELINGYIBAN。ZHEIYANGCHUJIJIANGCIJIBAOZAILIMIAN,KEYIZENGJIAOUHE,JIANXIAOLOUGAN。LINGWAICAIYONGDUOGUXIANJIAOHEDEFANGFA,ZAIBUTONGDEJIEMIAN,MEIYIGUXIANJIAOHUANWEIZHI,YOULIYUDIANLIUJUNHENG;HAIKEYIZENGJIAXIANCAIDEBIAOMIANJI,JIANXIAOGAOPINDIANZU,YOULIYUJIANGDIWENSHENG。

3 0 0 WZHUGONGLVGAOPINBIANYAQIYONG0.4 9mmXIANJINGGAOQIANGDUQIBAOXIAN,CHUJIYONG3GENJIAOXIANHOUXIANRAOZUILIMIANDE1 0QUAN,CHAN2QUANJIAODAI。JIEZHERAOZHONGJIANDECIJI,YONG1 6GENJIAOXIANHOURAO3QUAN,SHUAICHUZHONGXINCHOUTOU,ZAIANYUANFANGXIANGRAO3QUAN,ZHEIYANGKEZAITONGYIPINGMIANSHANGRAOWANCIJI,ZHISHIZHONGXINCHOUTOUDELAIHUILIANGGENXIANYOUXIESHAOGUCHULAIYIXIE,ZHIHOUZAICHAN2QUANJIAODAI。RANHOURAOCHUJIDEHOU1 0QUAN,CHAN3QUANJIAODAI。RAOZHIDESHIHOUYINGJINLIANGSHIXIANJUNYUNFENBU,ZHIZUOWANCHENGHOUCELIANGDIANGANLIANGWEICHUJI1.27mH;LIANGGECIJI5 5μH。SHIJIANZHENGMING,ZHEIYANGRAOZHIDEBIANYAQILOUGANHENXIAO,YUAN、FUBIANLOUGANZHIYOUJIGEμH。

(6)QUDONGBIANYAQIDERAOZHI

QUDONGBIANYAQICAIYONGGUANXINGCIXINP23/18,GUANXINGCIXINDETEDIANSHIZAISUOYOULEIXINGDECIXINZHONGJUYOUZUIHAODECIPINGBIXIAOGUO,DANSHIYEJUYOUZUICHADESANRENENGLI,YINCIBIJIAOSHIHEYONGLAIZHIZUOXIAOGONGLVDEQUDONGBIANYAQI。

QUDONGBIANYAQIYONG0.2mmXIANJING,DANGEN。XIANRAOGAOQIAOKAIGUANGUANDE20QUAN,ZHONGJIANRAOYUANBIANDECHUJI20QUAN,ZUIHOURAODIQIAOKAIGUANGUANDE20QUAN。ZHEISHILINGYIZHONGCAIYONGCIJIYICHUJIYICIJIDERAOFA,TONGYANGKEYIYOUXIAODIJIANXIAOLOUGAN。ZHIHAOHOUCELIANGDIANGANLIANGDAGAIYOU1.3mHZUOYOU。

(7)ELIUQUANDEJISUAN

扼流圈是开关电源二次输出级主要功率器件,也是影响输出电压指标的重要因素,过大的电感量会使输出的动态特性变差,而过小的电感量又会使输出的纹波指标率差,因此必须选取合适的电感量。粗略地可按下面公式计算:

 

SHIZHONG

P――SHUCHUGONGLV;

F――KAIGUANPINLV;

I――SHUCHUDIANLIU。

ZEDIANGANLIANGWEIL=2*P/f*I2=2*3 00/(1 00*1 03*2 22),≈1 2 μ H。

3.纹波抑制和EHI

WENBOHEE M ISHIKAIGUANDIANYUANZHONGDEZHONGYAOZHIBIAO,KEYISHUOSHIZHIJIEPINGJIAZHIZUODIANYUANHAOHUAIDEBIAOZHI,YINCIWENBOYIZHIHEJIANXIAOEM ISHIMEIGEDIANYUANZHIZUOZHEDOUYAOJIAOJINNAOZHIQUJIEJUEDE。XIAMIANSHI300wDIANYUANDEYIXIEJIEJUEFANGFA。

(1)300wKAIGUANDIANYUANZAISHURUJIJIARULEEMIDIANYUANZAOSHENGLVBOQI。DIANYUANEMIZAOSHENGLVBOQISHIYIZHONGWUYUANDITONGLVBOQI,TAWUSHUAIJIANDIJIANGJIAOLIUDIANCHUANSHUDAODIANYUAN,ERDADASHUAIJIANSUIJIAOLIUDIANCHUANRUDEE M IZAOSHENG;TONGSHIYOUNENGYOUXIAODIYIZHIDIANYUANSHEBEICHANSHENGDEEM IZAOSHENG,ZUZHITAMENJINRUJIAOLIUDIANWANGGANRAOQITADIANZISHEBEI,JIANGDICHUANDAOSAORAO。

(2)ZAISHUCHUJIJIARULEYIJIYIZHIWENBOZAOSHENGDEGONGMOELIUQUAN。SHILIUCHUDEDIANLIUHELIUHUIDEDIANLIUZAIYIGEXIAOCIHUANSHANGCHANSHENGXIANGFANDEGANYINGCITONG,SHIQIXIANGHUDIXIAO,JIDADIXIAOCHULESHUCHUDEGAOPINZAOSHENG。JINGGUOSHIYAN,WEIJIAGONGMOELIUQUANDESHUCHUDIANYAYONGSHIBOQIHUIKANDAOYOU20 0mVp-pDEGAOPINZAOSHENG,JIARUHOUZHIYOUSHIJImVp-p。

(3)QITADEYIZHICUOSHI。BAOKUOZAISHURUJICHUANJIENT CFANGDIANWANGLANGYONGDIANZU、ZAIGONGLVKAIGUANGUANHESHUCHUZHENGLIUERJIGUANYIJIGAOPINBIANYAQICHUJIJIERURCXISHOUWANGLUO、SHIYONGCHAOKUAIHUIFUXIAOTEJIERJIGUANDENGDENG,DOUKEYIYOUXIAODIJIANXIAODIANYAJIANFENG、YIZHIGAOPINZAOSHENG。

4.结束语

3 00WKAIGUANDIANYUANSHIYIKUANSHIYONGDEBANQIAOSHIYINGKAIGUANDIANYUAN,QIXIAOLVDADAO85%,SHUCHUWENBOZAIJIAOLIU2 20VSHURUMANZAI(1 4 V、2 2 A)XIAZHIYOU80MVP-P,ERQIEDONGTAIXIANGYINGHAO,YIZAITONGXINZHONGJITAISHANGZUOGUO24XIAOSHILAOHUASHIYAN,XIAOGUOHENHAO。QIBUZUZHICHUZAIYU:YOUYUSHIYINGKAIGUANFANGSHI,XIAOLVMEIYOURUANKAIGUANHAO。RUANKAIGUANDEXIAOLVYIBANZAI90%YISHANG。

KAIGUANDIANYUANSHEJIZHONGDEYIGENANDIANZAIYUZHUYAOHEXINQIJIANDECANSHUXUANZESHANG,LILUNJISUANCHULAIDESHUJUZAISHIJIZHONGBINGBUYIDINGJIUNENGDAILAIHAODEXIAOGUO。LIRU,ZHUGAOPINBIANYAQIDEZASHUBIXUANZE,ZUOZHECENGJINGJIANGZASHUBIDIAODAO18:14,JIEGUOMEIDAOLIANGFENZHONGKAIGUANGUANJIUSHAOHUILE。SUOYI,YILILUNWEIYIJU,CONGFANFUDESHIYANZHONGHUODEHELIDAPEIJIANGHUITIGAOXIAOLVBINGJIANGDIEMIGANRAO。

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